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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3-16

Principles of lung cancer screening – low-dose computerized tomography

Otto Wagner Hospital, Vienna, Austria

Correspondence Address:
Tibor Krajc
Otto Wagner Hospital, Sanatoriumstrasse 2, 1145 Vienna
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.7707/hmj.632

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Screening for early-stage lung cancer has the potential to significantly increase cure rate, lower case fatality rate and even reduce cancer-specific and overall mortality in the screened population. Lung cancer screening is not a single test, but a process. It begins with the selection of subjects at high risk and proceeds to baseline low-dose computerized tomography (LDCT), followed by regular additional rounds of LDCT accompanied by constant decision-making and risk re-evaluation, and continuing to eventual identification and timely adequate treatment of early-stage lung cancer, ultimately preventing death from lung cancer in a particular patient. There are conflicting interpretations of data from randomized trials and large cohort studies. This review attempts to summarize the basic principles of screening methodology and provide concise information on effectiveness of LDCT in detecting early lung cancer.

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