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  Most popular articles (Since February 23, 2018)

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Prevalence of diarrhoea and related risk factors among children aged under 5 years in Sana'a, Yemen
Mabrook Aidah Bin Mohanna, Naijla Al-Sonboli
January-March 2018, 11(1):29-33
Background: Diarrhoeal disease is one of the most common problems affecting children across the world. This study assessed the prevalence of diarrhoea and related risk factors among children aged <5 years. Methods and Material: A cross-sectional study was conducted over 8 months at Sam Specialized Paediatric Centre and Al-Mamoon Diagnostic Medical Centre, Yemen, involving 1570 children aged <5 years with diarrhoea. Detailed data regarding age, sex, diarrhoeal episodes, family size, education level of mother or female caregiver, breastfeeding and weight were collected. Results: Of 5400 patients seen for different causes, 1570 patients were children aged <5 years presenting with diarrhoea, giving a prevalence of 29.07%. A total of 850 children were boys and 720 were girls, with ages ranging from 6 to 60 months. There were 1325 children aged <12 months, 160 aged 1–2 years and 85 aged 3–5 years. There were 700 (44.59%) children from small families and 870 (55.41%) from large families. A total of 922 (58.73%) children were malnourished and 648 (41.27%) were not. There were 1125 (71.66%) children whose mothers or female caregivers had no or low-level formal education and 445 (28.34%) whose mothers or female caregivers had secondary or high-level education. A total of 651 (41.46%) children were breastfed, 735 (46.82%) were mixed fed and 184 (11.72%) were bottle-fed. Conclusion: The prevalence of diarrhoea in children was high; it was highest in those who were aged <12 months, from a large family, malnourished and not exclusively breastfed, and in those whose mother or female caregiver had no or low-level education. It is important to encourage family planning, a balanced diet, exclusive breastfeeding and maternal education, and to strengthen health intervention programmes, in order to reduce the incidence of diarrhoea.
  758 106 -
Prevention of stroke: Antihypertensives, cholesterol-lowering drugs, antithrombotics, anticoagulation, carotid surgery, and stenting
Michael Brainin
January-March 2018, 11(1):2-12
Antihypertensive drugs are very effective in secondary stroke prevention. More important than the choice of a class of antihypertensives is to achieve the systolic and diastolic blood pressure targets (<140/90 mmHg in nondiabetics and < 130/80 mmHg in diabetics). In many cases, this requires a combination therapy and lifestyle modification. Statin therapy reduces the rate of recurrent stroke and vascular events. The target range of low-density lipoprotein is 70–100 mg/dL. Patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke should receive antiplatelet drugs. The choices are acetylsalicylic acid (ASA 50–150 mg) or clopidogrel (75 mg). Short-term use of dual antiplatelet therapy (ASA plus clopidogrel) may be considered in patients with acute minor stroke or TIA and high risk of recurrence. Patients with a cardiac source of embolism, in particular atrial fibrillation (AF), should be treated with oral anticoagulation. Options for patients with AF include dose-adjusted warfarin (international normalized ratio 2.0–3.0), apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, or rivaroxaban. Patients with contraindications to use oral anticoagulation should receive ASA 100–300 mg/day. Symptomatic patients with significant stenosis of the internal carotid artery (degree of stenosis between 70% and 95%) should undergo carotid endarterectomy. Carotid artery stenting is an alternative to endarterectomy in patients who are unsuitable or at high risk for endarterectomy. Patients should receive ASA before, during, and after endarterectomy or the combination of clopidogrel (75 mg) plus ASA (75–100 mg) and after carotid stenting for 1–3 months. Symptomatic patients with intracranial stenosis or occlusions should be treated with optimal medical management, which includes antiplatelet therapy and high-dose statins (if deemed appropriate). In patients with recurrent events, angioplasty can be considered.
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Secondary stroke prevention offers now more choices and is critical to reduce the burden of recurrent stroke and death
Michael Brainin
January-March 2018, 11(1):1-1
  492 145 -
Shoulder ultrasonography accuracy compared with magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of rotator cuff injuries
Mohamed Walaaeldin Elfaal
January-March 2018, 11(1):13-16
Rotator cuff injuries are common and frequently seen by orthopaedic surgeons. Accurate diagnosis of the injury is crucial for appropriate management. Imaging studies are the cornerstone of diagnosis and have great value compared with clinical assessment alone.
  455 93 -
Influence of personal characteristics on self-concept and job satisfaction of registered nurses working in cross-cultural settings in the United Arab Emirates
Vimala Edwin
January-March 2018, 11(1):22-28
Background: Self-concept is vital for the nurses to understand about themselves and their patient in the health care setting. In order to meet the patient needs, it is important that the nurses should possess healthy self-concept that makes them more responsible and be more confident to handle the situations skillfully. Every nurse is an important member of the health care organization to provide quality patient care, their work environment and other related factors are essential to satisfy their job. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the association of self-concept and job satisfaction of registered nurses working at cross-cultural setting. Study Design and Settings: A descriptive correlational study was conducted with 1061 registered nurses working in selected government hospitals using convenience-sampling method. The registered nurses self-concept and job satisfaction were surveyed using the standardized tool Nurses Self-Concept Questionnaire (NSCQ) and Mccloskey/Muller job satisfaction scale (MMSS). SPSS software version 20 was used to analyze the collected data to report descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The current study identified that there is a relationship between registered nurses self-concept and job satisfaction and the correlation coefficients were statistically very highly significant (P < 0.001). The association of job satisfaction with sub component of self-concept reveals that Nurses General Self-Concept r = 0.273, P < 0.001, Care r = 0.141, P < 0.001, Staff relation r = 0.320, P < 0.001, Communication r = 0.174, P < 0.001, Knowledge r = 0.218, P < 0.001, and lower association with 'Leadership' (r = 0.063, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this research demonstrated the importance of registered nurses self-concept and its effect on job satisfaction that is essential for nurses to provide effective care to the patients.
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Complication rates of thyroidectomy by an experienced, high-volume thyroid surgeon in a private hospital in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Zahoor Ahmad, Ammar Kutaiman, Youssef Hassan, Peshraw Amin, Mohammad Amjad Khan
January-March 2018, 11(1):17-21
Background: Thyroidectomy is one of the most common endocrine surgical procedures; it is performed by surgeons of various specialities including general surgeons, endocrine surgeons, ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgeons and head and neck surgeons. Thyroidectomy carries a significant and immediate risk of complications, some of which can be life threating. Improved surgical techniques and surgeons experienced in thyroid surgery can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. Objective: The objective of this prospective study was to determine the overall complication rate and demonstrate that a permanent complication rate of 0% can be achieved. Study Design and Settings: The study was carried out between January 2013 and May 2015 and involved 228 patients. All patients were assessed preoperatively by an endocrinologist and an ENT surgeon for vocal cord functions; all were operated on by the same surgeon, who had >10 years' experience and performed over 100 thyroidectomies per year. Patients were followed up at 6 months to record any complications. Data were analysed using SPSS version 13.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) and a Chi-squared test was used to calculate P values. Results: There was an overall complication rate of 16.23%; 15.8% of patients experienced transient hypocalcaemia and 0.4% experienced post-operative bleeding. There were no permanent complications, and the rate of both recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and wound infection was 0%. Conclusion: We conclude that the rate of complications of thyroidectomy can be significantly reduced and the rate of permanent complications reduced to 0% if the procedure is performed by an experienced, high-volume surgeon with a special interest in thyroid surgery.
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Update on neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders
Mohamed Walaaeldin Elfaal
April-June 2018, 11(2):50-55
Psychoradiology is a newly emerging filed describes the application of the neuroimaging techniques in analysing psychiatric conditions. Previously in psychiatry only gross structural abnormalities, that might cause psychosis, could be detected. Neuroimaging was used to detect and to differentiate depression from neurodegenerative disorders or brain tumours. Recently, functional neuroimaging, mostly in the form of functional magnetic resonance imaging, molecular neuroimaging with positron-emission tomography or single photon emission tomography, facilitates the identification of therapeutic targets, the determination of the dose of a new drug needed to occupy its target in the brain, following up the effect of the treatment and the selection of patients for clinical trials.
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New teeth in 1 Day: Transition from a failing dentition to immediate full-arch implant restoration (All-On-4®)
Werner Millesi, Dieter Busenlechner, Rudolf Fuürhauser, Robert Haas, Georg Mailath-Pokorny, Bernhard Pommer
April-June 2018, 11(2):43-45
Patients with hopeless residual dentition due to advanced periodontal disease or failing fixed or removable partial dentures frequently present with difficulties and concerns regarding the provisional phase until their final prosthetic restoration. As removable dentures are generally not preferred – not even as a provisional – the transition to a fixed rehabilitation should be quick, aesthetically appealing and restoring function in terms of chewing as well as phonetics. The immediate All-on-4® implant treatment concept at the Academy for Oral Implantology in Vienna (Austria) relies on implant placement at the day of tooth extraction and immediate fixed restoration within a few hours. The key factor is the placement of angulated implants (to avoid vital anatomic structures as well as invasive bone grafting procedures) that allows for immediate occlusal loading due to the increased anchorage in the native jawbone. Highly aesthetic provisional implant bridges can thus be provided at the day of surgery.
  372 103 -
Antisynthetase syndrome: A case report and literature review
Khalid Ali Khan, Wedad Nabih Ahmed
April-June 2018, 11(2):87-90
Antisynthetase (AS) syndrome is a rare idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterised by myositis, Raynaud's disease, fever, interstitial lung disease (ILD), 'mechanic's hands' and arthropathy, and it is associated with the presence of antibodies against aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase especially anti-Jo-1. We report the case of a 31-year-old Egyptian male who presented with fever, mechanic's hands, subclinical myositis, arthritis and ILD. He had been treated previously at another hospital with broad-spectrum antibiotics but without response. He was extensively worked up for infections and found to have mycoplasma infection and strongly positive anti-Jo-1 and anti-Ro/SSA antibodies. AS syndrome was confirmed based on clinical features and laboratory results. The patient was treated with high-dose steroids and subsequently with mycophenolate mofetil and dramatically improved. This case highlights the importance of awareness of this rare condition and that careful examination of the hands can be crucial as mechanics's hands is a unique manifestation of AS syndrome, occurring in ≈20% of cases. Mycoplasma infection may have been a triggering factor in this case.
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New teeth in one day: Immediate implant replacement of a single tooth using the copy-abutment technique
Werner Millesi, Dieter Busenlechner, Rudolf Fürhauser, Robert Haas, Georg Mailath-Pokorny, Bernhard Pommer
April-June 2018, 11(2):46-49
Losing teeth – particularly in the aesthetic zone of the anterior maxilla – represents a great dilemma for a patient and a challenge for the attending dentist. Immediate placement of dental implants at the day of tooth extraction is an established treatment concept that offers the possibility to provide fixed provisional crowns within few hours. Troublesome removable prostheses can thus be avoided, and the psychological trauma of tooth loss is minimised. The Copy-abutment technique was developed at the Academy for Oral Implantology in Vienna (Austria) and guarantees the best possible preservation of soft-tissue aesthetics by immediate implant restoration using custom-made abutments composed of highly aesthetic zirconia ceramic. On the basis of a modern all-digital workflow and a close cooperation with the affiliated dental laboratory, it is possible to provide the patient with a new tooth in just 1 day.
  330 85 -
Oral health risks associated with recreational and professional scuba diving: A pilot study
Carolina Duarte, Aml Abu-Youssef
April-June 2018, 11(2):65-69
Introduction: The pressure experienced during diving can cause a variety of pressure-induced injuries to the head, face and oral regions. The most common oral complications are odontocrexis (dislodgement of dental restorations), barometric-related dental pain caused by air bubbles and increased pressure at the restoration–tooth interface or by flaring of periapical infections, temporomandibular joint disorders caused by heavy or poorly designed mouthpieces and cross-contamination of pathogens caused by improper disinfection of shared equipment. Objective: This study aims to identify the most common effects of frequent pressure variation on the oral health of divers from Ras Al Khaimah (RAK) Police and assess the in vitro survival of composite and amalgam restorations. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire eliciting demographic, occupational and barotrauma-related information was completed by members of RAK Police and the data were analysed. High-quality composite and amalgam restoration were performed on extracted teeth before exposure to 0.5–0.6 MPa at 37°C, simulating deep-diving conditions and repeated seven times for 10 min. Survival of the restorations was monitored. Results: Questionnaire data revealed that deep divers experience periodontal damage, enamel fissures and odontocrexis of metal and composite restorations, which could be associated with diving depth and frequency. These observations were supported by the in vitro assessment. Odontocrexis was observed earlier and more severely in amalgam restorations than in composite restorations. Increased pressure during diving can, therefore, affect the integrity of both amalgam and composite restorations, but composite restorations can withstand increased pressure for a longer duration than amalgam restorations before eventually showing damage, as observed both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: Divers with more experience and who dive deeper are affected to a greater extent by barotrauma than those with less experience or who do not dive as deep. Composite restorations are considered safer than amalgams for patients who dive.
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Incidence of treatable retinopathy of prematurity in twin tertiary care government hospitals in dubai and its management
Sivakami A Pai, Afra M Lootah, Muhammad Fazal, Manal O Taryam, Mahmoud S Elhalik, Mohammed Atif Makdum, Budoor A Alamimi, Mohamed Kannas, Laila M Almuhiri, Moza A Dekhain
April-June 2018, 11(2):56-64
Aim: The purpose of this study was to estimate the present incidence of Treatable Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Dubai. To share our experience following bevacizumab monotherapy for treatable ROP. Design: It is a prospective nonrandomized, interventional case series. Method: Infants of two major government hospital in Dubai, Latifa hospital and Dubai Hospital, Neonatal Intensive care unit (NICU) were screened for Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). ROP screening was based on American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines. The Inclusion Criteria for treatable ROP were the infants with Type 1 ROP; Stage 2 plus and Vascular stage 3 plus ROP in zone I and II disease. Intravitreal injection of 0.75 mg/0.03 ml bevacizumab was given under topical anesthesia. The follow up period was from 6 months to 1 year after the treatment. Results: Eight hundred and ten premature infants were screened from April 2010 to April 2014. Among them 215 had ROP (26.54%). One hundred and twelve eyes of 56 neonates (6.9%) developed treatable ROP. Ninety- four eyes of 47 infants underwent bevacizumab monotherapy. In 92.6% eye the ROP regressed. There was recurrence of ROP in 7.4%. Conclusion: The incidence of pre-term births is rising in Dubai due to increase in the population and fertility treatment trend in Dubai. Anti-VEGFs are effective treatment for vascular ROP with back up laser being mandatory. However, long term effects of Anti-VEGFs on neuro motor development needs to be monitored
  280 68 -
Vascular anomalies
Julia Roka, Kurosh Paya
July-September 2018, 11(3):91-93
Vascular anomalies are rare congenital anomalies partly belonging to the Orphan diseaeses. Due to the intensive collaboration of the ISSVA a common categorization based upon histopathological attributes could be established. We present a short overview of the classification, manifestations and the diagnostic and therapeutical options.
  282 38 -
Prevalence and risk factors of cardiovascular disease in the United Arab Emirates
Hira Abdul Razzak, Alya Harbi, Wael Shelpai, Ahmad Qawas
July-September 2018, 11(3):105-111
Noncommunicable diseases are a cause of great concern in developing countries, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is most commonly attributable to risk factors such as obesity, high-blood pressure (BP), lack of physical activity and smoking. This study aims to summarize previous research on the prevalence and risk factors of CVD in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Search engines and databases such as PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct, as well as several local journals, were utilised to identify relevant literature. Inclusion was limited to studies published between 2007 and 2016 in the English language and conducted with UAE participants (citizens and/or expatriates). Twenty-one relevant studies were found, including cross-sectional studies (n = 11), population-based studies (n = 3), literature reviews (n = 2) and a case–control study (n = 1). Estimates of the prevalence of CVD are considerably high, although there is insufficient information available on prevalence in the UAE as a whole. Primary determinants of CVD include obesity, smoking and diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of risk factors associated with CVD has increased in the UAE and will continue to increase, as made clear by the reviewed studies and as predicted by projections and future estimates. Some risk factors can be controlled, treated and prevented. Further attention should be given to developing preventative and curative strategies in order to reduce BP, increase physical activity, improve dietary habits and reduce smoking.
  262 42 -
A rare case report of right hepatic lobe herniation through an incisional anterolateral abdominal wall hernia following an open choledochotomy with a concise literature review
Schauki Mahmoud, Amjad Soltany
July-September 2018, 11(3):134-137
Hepatic herniation through an incisional anterolateral abdominal wall hernia is an extremely rare condition. Here, we are reporting a case of hepatic herniation through the anterolateral abdominal wall which had been managed conservatively in a 75-year-old female patient. In addition, we are presenting a brief summary of all previously indexed reported cases to help other surgeons in managing similar rare cases the optimal way.
  216 53 -
Neonatal bilateral chylothorax treated by octreotide
Mahmoud Ahmed, Atef Hamed Alshafei, Anwar Khan, Ahmed Gouda
January-March 2018, 11(1):34-36
Chylothorax is a type of abnormal leak and accumulation of lymphatic fluid in the pleural space. Although clinically rare, chylothorax is the most common cause of pleural effusion in neonates and is usually idiopathic in nature. Chylothorax causes significant respiratory problems as well as nutritional and immunological issues. Patients unresponsive to medical management usually require surgical intervention such as pleurodesis. We report the case of a full-term infant with an idiopathic bilateral chylothorax who was treated with octreotide (a long-acting somatostatin analogue) after failure of conservative nutritional management. The infant responded well and tolerated the medication without complications.
  226 40 -
Rare complications of severe mucositis and psychosis with levetiracetam in an emirati child with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
Anjan Madasu, Asim Rana, Hani Humad, Saleh Banat, Abdulrahman Al Jassmi
January-March 2018, 11(1):40-41
We report on a 10-year-old Emirati child with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed severe mucositis and psychosis while taking levetiracetam. The child was diagnosed with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia on 9 May 2014 and was started on chemotherapy in accordance with the ALL-BFM 95 protocol. During induction chemotherapy, he developed seizures thought to be due to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, and after neurology consultation, he was started on levetiracetam. He developed severe mucositis and psychosis while on levetiracetam, which was resolved by discontinuing treatment with this medication. Levetiracetam has been used to treat seizures in children with cancer because of its low reported side effects and compatibility with chemotherapy. Severe mucositis and psychosis are two serious complications associated with levetiracetam. This is the first reported case in the literature of an Emirati child with leukaemia developing severe mucositis and psychosis when taking levetiracetam.
  229 34 -
Internal supravesical hernia
Ahmad Kamal, Osama Alzoabi, Ali Salem, Faisal Badri, Alya Al-Mazrouei
January-March 2018, 11(1):37-39
Internal supravesical hernia is a rare condition with unclear presentation features. If an obstructed hernia is suspected, computerised tomography (CT) can aid diagnosis; some cases are diagnosed at exploratory laparotomy. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who presented with an irreducible left inguinal hernia and an associated supravesical hernia. The diagnosis was suspected during CT and exploratory laparotomy was performed. With early diagnosis and management, supravesical hernias can have an excellent prognosis.
  211 31 -
Paediatric urology: Emerging challenges
Felix Naegele, Josef Oswald
July-September 2018, 11(3):94-99
Medical advancements in paediatric urology are moving at a rapid pace, understanding natural history in congenital malformation of the urinary tract in infancy has changed our diagnostic as well therapeutic approach. Additionally more efficient diagnostic options have evolved our therapeutic in particular surgical approach toward minimally invasive options in children. Interdisciplinary teamwork are the needs of the moment applies above all to children with complex congenital malformations such as disorders of sexual development, urethral valves, cloacal extrophy or complex congenital deformities of the upper urinary tract. This short summary give insights into the current diagnostic discussion as well minimal invasive concepts of most important disease patterns in paediatric urology.
  206 33 -
Is hypoglycaemia in acute ill children presenting to emergency department investigated properly?
Suha Hadi, Noura Al Hassani, Manar Abushkhaeidem, Aisha Al Khaaldi, Abeer Khayat
July-September 2018, 11(3):124-126
Background: Infants and children presenting to the emergency department with hypoglycemia are a diagnostic emergency and require urgent treatment. We hypothesize that pediatric patients who present with hypoglycemia associated with other acute illnesses are not being investigated properly for the hypoglycemia etiology. Methods: The medical records of all pediatric patients with the diagnosis of hypoglycemia, blood glucose level of <3mmol/L (54mg/dl) and not known to have metabolic or endocrine illness, who presented to the emergency department at Tawam Hospital from Jan 2012 until December 2014, were retrospectively reviewed. Patient's demographic data had been collected in addition to associated diagnosis, hypoglycemic related symptoms, glucocheck, serum glucose, urine ketones, workup and management. Data were analyzed using Excel 2010. Results: Among 514 subjects reviewed, 197 were included. 52% were male and 81% were less than five years of age. The most common associated diagnosis was acute gastroenteritis (AGE), 152 (77%). 46 (23%) had associated hypoglycemic related symptoms, although nonspecific. None of the subjects had specific investigations for hypoglycemia at time of presentation. 16 (8%) were identified as high risk for having pathologic cause for hypoglycemia, however 4 (25%) referred for metabolic and/or endocrinology services. Urine was checked only in 50 (25%) subjects, 45 (90%) of them tested positive for ketones. Conclusion: Evidence based clinical practice guidelines are needed in managing children with hypoglycemia associated with acute illness who are not known to have metabolic or endocrine diseases. In addition, parent's education on proper care of children with AGE is required to prevent hypoglycemia.
  192 32 -
Prevalence and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in patients from Ras Al Khaimah: A retrospective study from a Teaching Dental Hospital in the UAE
Fatema Almuheiri, Carolina Duarte
July-September 2018, 11(3):116-119
Context: Supernumerary teeth are teeth that exceed the normal dental formula. They have variable characteristics and may cause a number of clinical complications. In the Middle East, a prevalence of 0.3%–2.14% has been observed; however, the number of studies of this condition is limited in the region. Aims: This study aimed to examine the prevalence and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in patients from Ras Al Khaimah with consideration of demographic variations. Setting and Design: The study was performed at RAK College of Dental Sciences Dental Clinic. The radiographic database from two consecutive years was used as study sample. Subjects and Methods: A total of 2925 panoramic radiographs were analyzed to identify supernumerary teeth, and demographic-clinical data were extracted from patient files. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using nonparametric tests. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A prevalence of 0.75% was observed. Affected patients were predominantly South Asian males. The teeth were mostly supplemental, para-premolars, and impacted with low incidence of distomolars and no difference in occurrence in the maxilla or mandible. Occurrence of multiple supernumerary teeth was low and restricted to one jaw. Conclusions: This study suggests that one of every 133 patients will have impacted supernumerary teeth that can be expected in the premolar area of the maxilla/mandible, which should be considered when planning community oral health diagnosis and dental treatment strategies.
  178 39 -
Investigating the role of the histone deacetylases-inhibitor suberanilohydroxamic acid in the differentiation of stem cells into insulin secreting cells
Ibrahim Elsharkawi, Divyasree Sandeep, Ahmed El-Serafi
0, 0(0):0-0
Introduction: The United Arab Emirates has the second incidence of diabetes in the world. The current diabetes management plans are associated with many complications and do not provide a cure. Stem cells offer hope for permanent alleviation of this health problem through the possible differentiation into insulin-secreting cells. The current methods for the differentiation do not produce homogeneous beta-cell populations. Histone deacetylation is an epigenetic silencing mechanism that can render many genes irresponsive to the induction protocols. This study aimed at investigating the effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA) on the production of functional beta cells, based on a mesenchymal stem cells model. Methods: MG63 cells were treated for three consecutive days with SAHA, followed by a three-steps of beta cells differentiation protocol, with media-contained retinoic acid, epidermal growth factor, nicotinamide and exendin-4 at different stages. Then, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was conducted to assess the functional state of the differentiated cells. Results: Pretreating the cells with SAHA enhanced the insulin production and secretion in comparison to the control (PBS) and the vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide, as shown by the immunofluorescence detection of insulin and the transcription factor “PDX1”, as well as an increase in insulin secretion in the media. Gene expression analysis showed that SAHA pretreated cells had more induction of the studied markers when challenged with high glucose level. Conclusion: Such findings indicate a novel approach to enhance the ability of stem cells to differentiate into insulin-producing cells with potential therapeutic implications.
  180 14 -
Updates on the role of imaging in the assessment of crohn's disease
Mohamed Walaaeldin Elfaal
0, 0(0):0-0
As initial studies reported that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was useful for the evaluation of the small intestine, this modality has become increasingly important in the diagnosis, assessment and exclusion of small bowel disease. The use of MRI for the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease is increasing, at the expense of the current primary imaging modality and computed tomography (CT) enterography. MRI has many advantages over CT, including a lack of radiation exposure, lower prevalence of adverse events, availability of dynamic information, higher resolution and better soft-tissue contrast. New MRI techniques, including diffusion-weighted imaging, spectroscopy, motility study, positron-emission tomography-MRI and molecular imaging, are currently under investigation to improve the diagnosis, follow-up and management of the disease.
  172 12 -
Examination of gendered differences in the advertising of cosmetic surgery procedures in the United Arab Emirates
Zahir Vally
July-September 2018, 11(3):120-123
Background: The number of cosmetic surgery procedures has steadily increased, in the United States (US) as well as on a global scale. Research reports that the majority of surgical procedures are performed on women, despite societal changes that have precipitated increased interest from potential male consumers. Much less is known about cosmetic surgery practices outside of the US. Objectives: This study investigated the differential targeting of cosmetic surgery advertising directed towards male and female patients. Methods: An exploratory review of publicly available online information was conducted. A systematic search strategy was employed to find cosmetic surgery practice websites operating in the United Arab Emirates. Website content was examined to determine the procedures performed, whether services were specifically targeted at male patients and the gender of the images contained on the website. Results: The content of 34 websites was accessed and examined; 90 surgeons who were predominantly male (75%), some of whom had trained in the US (21%) and were primarily working from metropolitan cities formed the sample. The majority of practices did not specifically target male patients, 82% did not have a male services section, only 18% displayed images of male patients or models, but more than half of the practices performed gynaecomastia. Conclusions: It appears that despite socio-cultural and attitudinal changes in this region of the world towards cosmetic surgery, many practices continue to ignore male consumers in their online advertising efforts.
  165 17 -
Rate of post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage in different tonsillectomy techniques: Retrospective study, Dubai hospital experience in 16-Month period
Abdelgalil Ali Ragab, Munzer Abdulhadi Manzlgi, Mouhannad Mahmoud Abdulber Fakoury
April-June 2018, 11(2):70-73
Introduction: Tonsillectomy is one of the most common otolaryngology procedures performed. Haemorrhage has been divided into two broad categories; primary, occurring <24 h after surgery and secondary, occurring >24 h post-operation although commonly 5–10 days after the operation. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the rate of post-tonsillectomy bleeding in our hospital, to review the rate of bleeding between different methods of tonsillectomy and to encourage surgeons with high bleeding rate to change to different techniques. Methods: It was a retrospective study conducted at the Department of Otolaryngology (ENT), Dubai Hospital, Dubai, United Arab of Emirates. It was conducted from 1st June 2014 to 30th September 2015. Study population were 554 patients who underwent tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy during this period. The patients were grouped into four groups according to the tonsillectomy technique. Results: Twenty-two patient presented with bleeding (3.97%). Out of these, one was primary post-tonsillectomy bleeding and 21 were secondary post-tonsillectomy bleeding. The highest rate of secondary post-tonsillectomy bleeding was in bipolar tonsillectomy group (8.98%), while the lowest rate was in radiofrequency group. The primary bleeding was encountered in one patient in cold dissection group while no primary bleeding was encountered in other groups. 40.9% of cases were managed surgically, while 59.1% were managed medically. Conclusion: Post-tonsillectomy bleeding is still a clinically significant complication despite advances in surgical techniques. Radiofrequency tonsillectomy has the lowest bleeding rate. Our hospital rate of bleeding stand in the international range and we are going to be better regarding secondary bleeding, but we are one of the best regarding primary.
  151 28 -