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REVIEW ARTICLE
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Smoking and its risks in Saudi Arabia: Literature review


 Department of Public Health and Infection Control, FANA Global Consultancy and Business Limited, Birmingham, United Kingdom

Correspondence Address:
Muhammad Zubair Tahir,
Fana Global Consultancy and Business Limited, 1 St. Agatha's Road, Ward End, Birmingham, B8 2TU
United Kingdom
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2227-2437.241549

Smoking, as recreational activity, is being practiced by over 1 billion people globally. The main objective of the present study was to explore smoking prevalence, its effects and people attitude in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) by literature review. PubMed was used for systematic search. Search was made with key words ‘Smoking AND Saudi Arabia’ and a total of 790 articles were found. When limits were applied with English language and studies on human, 502 articles were left. All abstracts of these articles were reviewed with the application of inclusion criteria of studies in the KSA and Saudi Arabia population and 75 articles were left. Then, these articles were categorised according to content, attitudes, cross-sectional studies, factors or diseases, its effects and associations to risk factors, original articles, prospective and retrospective studies, studies about smoking, surveys, studies showed different prevalences of smoking among schoolchildren, medical colleges, university students, health professionals and other population. Tobacco smoking was a major and modifiable risk factor for cardiac diseases and other diseases in Saudi Arabian population. Majority of smokers were found motivated to quit smoking, needed guidance and treatment. Second-hand smoke (SHS) affects newborns and children's health. Waterpipe smoking and SHS were potential threats for population's health in SA. It was concluded that in the KSA, smoking is a forthcoming alarming threat for different tobacco-related diseases. Now, it can be controlled in minimal time with lesser efforts by strategic planning, designing tobacco control programmes according to sex, age groups and education levels.


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