• Users Online: 174
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Export selected to
Endnote
Reference Manager
Procite
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2018
Volume 11 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-41

Online since Thursday, March 29, 2018

Accessed 935 times.

PDF access policy
Journal allows immediate open access to content in HTML + PDF
View as eBookView issue as eBook
Author Institution MappingAuthor Institution Mapping
Access StatisticsIssue statistics
RSS FeedRSS
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to  Add to my list
EDITORIAL  

Secondary stroke prevention offers now more choices and is critical to reduce the burden of recurrent stroke and death Highly accessed article p. 1
Michael Brainin
DOI:10.4103/2227-2437.228868  
[HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
STATE OF THE ART REVIEW Top

Prevention of stroke: Antihypertensives, cholesterol-lowering drugs, antithrombotics, anticoagulation, carotid surgery, and stenting p. 2
Michael Brainin
DOI:10.4103/2227-2437.228869  
Antihypertensive drugs are very effective in secondary stroke prevention. More important than the choice of a class of antihypertensives is to achieve the systolic and diastolic blood pressure targets (<140/90 mmHg in nondiabetics and < 130/80 mmHg in diabetics). In many cases, this requires a combination therapy and lifestyle modification. Statin therapy reduces the rate of recurrent stroke and vascular events. The target range of low-density lipoprotein is 70–100 mg/dL. Patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke should receive antiplatelet drugs. The choices are acetylsalicylic acid (ASA 50–150 mg) or clopidogrel (75 mg). Short-term use of dual antiplatelet therapy (ASA plus clopidogrel) may be considered in patients with acute minor stroke or TIA and high risk of recurrence. Patients with a cardiac source of embolism, in particular atrial fibrillation (AF), should be treated with oral anticoagulation. Options for patients with AF include dose-adjusted warfarin (international normalized ratio 2.0–3.0), apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban, or rivaroxaban. Patients with contraindications to use oral anticoagulation should receive ASA 100–300 mg/day. Symptomatic patients with significant stenosis of the internal carotid artery (degree of stenosis between 70% and 95%) should undergo carotid endarterectomy. Carotid artery stenting is an alternative to endarterectomy in patients who are unsuitable or at high risk for endarterectomy. Patients should receive ASA before, during, and after endarterectomy or the combination of clopidogrel (75 mg) plus ASA (75–100 mg) and after carotid stenting for 1–3 months. Symptomatic patients with intracranial stenosis or occlusions should be treated with optimal medical management, which includes antiplatelet therapy and high-dose statins (if deemed appropriate). In patients with recurrent events, angioplasty can be considered.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Shoulder ultrasonography accuracy compared with magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of rotator cuff injuries p. 13
Mohamed Walaaeldin Elfaal
DOI:10.7707/hmj.737  
Rotator cuff injuries are common and frequently seen by orthopaedic surgeons. Accurate diagnosis of the injury is crucial for appropriate management. Imaging studies are the cornerstone of diagnosis and have great value compared with clinical assessment alone.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLES Top

Complication rates of thyroidectomy by an experienced, high-volume thyroid surgeon in a private hospital in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates p. 17
Zahoor Ahmad, Ammar Kutaiman, Youssef Hassan, Peshraw Amin, Mohammad Amjad Khan
DOI:10.7707/hmj.735  
Background: Thyroidectomy is one of the most common endocrine surgical procedures; it is performed by surgeons of various specialities including general surgeons, endocrine surgeons, ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgeons and head and neck surgeons. Thyroidectomy carries a significant and immediate risk of complications, some of which can be life threating. Improved surgical techniques and surgeons experienced in thyroid surgery can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. Objective: The objective of this prospective study was to determine the overall complication rate and demonstrate that a permanent complication rate of 0% can be achieved. Study Design and Settings: The study was carried out between January 2013 and May 2015 and involved 228 patients. All patients were assessed preoperatively by an endocrinologist and an ENT surgeon for vocal cord functions; all were operated on by the same surgeon, who had >10 years' experience and performed over 100 thyroidectomies per year. Patients were followed up at 6 months to record any complications. Data were analysed using SPSS version 13.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) and a Chi-squared test was used to calculate P values. Results: There was an overall complication rate of 16.23%; 15.8% of patients experienced transient hypocalcaemia and 0.4% experienced post-operative bleeding. There were no permanent complications, and the rate of both recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and wound infection was 0%. Conclusion: We conclude that the rate of complications of thyroidectomy can be significantly reduced and the rate of permanent complications reduced to 0% if the procedure is performed by an experienced, high-volume surgeon with a special interest in thyroid surgery.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Influence of personal characteristics on self-concept and job satisfaction of registered nurses working in cross-cultural settings in the United Arab Emirates p. 22
Vimala Edwin
DOI:10.7707/hmj.718  
Background: Self-concept is vital for the nurses to understand about themselves and their patient in the health care setting. In order to meet the patient needs, it is important that the nurses should possess healthy self-concept that makes them more responsible and be more confident to handle the situations skillfully. Every nurse is an important member of the health care organization to provide quality patient care, their work environment and other related factors are essential to satisfy their job. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the association of self-concept and job satisfaction of registered nurses working at cross-cultural setting. Study Design and Settings: A descriptive correlational study was conducted with 1061 registered nurses working in selected government hospitals using convenience-sampling method. The registered nurses self-concept and job satisfaction were surveyed using the standardized tool Nurses Self-Concept Questionnaire (NSCQ) and Mccloskey/Muller job satisfaction scale (MMSS). SPSS software version 20 was used to analyze the collected data to report descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The current study identified that there is a relationship between registered nurses self-concept and job satisfaction and the correlation coefficients were statistically very highly significant (P < 0.001). The association of job satisfaction with sub component of self-concept reveals that Nurses General Self-Concept r = 0.273, P < 0.001, Care r = 0.141, P < 0.001, Staff relation r = 0.320, P < 0.001, Communication r = 0.174, P < 0.001, Knowledge r = 0.218, P < 0.001, and lower association with 'Leadership' (r = 0.063, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this research demonstrated the importance of registered nurses self-concept and its effect on job satisfaction that is essential for nurses to provide effective care to the patients.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Prevalence of diarrhoea and related risk factors among children aged under 5 years in Sana'a, Yemen p. 29
Mabrook Aidah Bin Mohanna, Naijla Al-Sonboli
DOI:10.7707/hmj.711  
Background: Diarrhoeal disease is one of the most common problems affecting children across the world. This study assessed the prevalence of diarrhoea and related risk factors among children aged <5 years. Methods and Material: A cross-sectional study was conducted over 8 months at Sam Specialized Paediatric Centre and Al-Mamoon Diagnostic Medical Centre, Yemen, involving 1570 children aged <5 years with diarrhoea. Detailed data regarding age, sex, diarrhoeal episodes, family size, education level of mother or female caregiver, breastfeeding and weight were collected. Results: Of 5400 patients seen for different causes, 1570 patients were children aged <5 years presenting with diarrhoea, giving a prevalence of 29.07%. A total of 850 children were boys and 720 were girls, with ages ranging from 6 to 60 months. There were 1325 children aged <12 months, 160 aged 1–2 years and 85 aged 3–5 years. There were 700 (44.59%) children from small families and 870 (55.41%) from large families. A total of 922 (58.73%) children were malnourished and 648 (41.27%) were not. There were 1125 (71.66%) children whose mothers or female caregivers had no or low-level formal education and 445 (28.34%) whose mothers or female caregivers had secondary or high-level education. A total of 651 (41.46%) children were breastfed, 735 (46.82%) were mixed fed and 184 (11.72%) were bottle-fed. Conclusion: The prevalence of diarrhoea in children was high; it was highest in those who were aged <12 months, from a large family, malnourished and not exclusively breastfed, and in those whose mother or female caregiver had no or low-level education. It is important to encourage family planning, a balanced diet, exclusive breastfeeding and maternal education, and to strengthen health intervention programmes, in order to reduce the incidence of diarrhoea.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
CASE REPORTS Top

Neonatal bilateral chylothorax treated by octreotide p. 34
Mahmoud Ahmed, Atef Hamed Alshafei, Anwar Khan, Ahmed Gouda
DOI:10.7707/hmj.721  
Chylothorax is a type of abnormal leak and accumulation of lymphatic fluid in the pleural space. Although clinically rare, chylothorax is the most common cause of pleural effusion in neonates and is usually idiopathic in nature. Chylothorax causes significant respiratory problems as well as nutritional and immunological issues. Patients unresponsive to medical management usually require surgical intervention such as pleurodesis. We report the case of a full-term infant with an idiopathic bilateral chylothorax who was treated with octreotide (a long-acting somatostatin analogue) after failure of conservative nutritional management. The infant responded well and tolerated the medication without complications.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Internal supravesical hernia p. 37
Ahmad Kamal, Osama Alzoabi, Ali Salem, Faisal Badri, Alya Al-Mazrouei
DOI:10.7707/hmj.719  
Internal supravesical hernia is a rare condition with unclear presentation features. If an obstructed hernia is suspected, computerised tomography (CT) can aid diagnosis; some cases are diagnosed at exploratory laparotomy. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who presented with an irreducible left inguinal hernia and an associated supravesical hernia. The diagnosis was suspected during CT and exploratory laparotomy was performed. With early diagnosis and management, supravesical hernias can have an excellent prognosis.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Rare complications of severe mucositis and psychosis with levetiracetam in an emirati child with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia p. 40
Anjan Madasu, Asim Rana, Hani Humad, Saleh Banat, Abdulrahman Al Jassmi
DOI:10.7707/hmj.741  
We report on a 10-year-old Emirati child with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed severe mucositis and psychosis while taking levetiracetam. The child was diagnosed with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia on 9 May 2014 and was started on chemotherapy in accordance with the ALL-BFM 95 protocol. During induction chemotherapy, he developed seizures thought to be due to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, and after neurology consultation, he was started on levetiracetam. He developed severe mucositis and psychosis while on levetiracetam, which was resolved by discontinuing treatment with this medication. Levetiracetam has been used to treat seizures in children with cancer because of its low reported side effects and compatibility with chemotherapy. Severe mucositis and psychosis are two serious complications associated with levetiracetam. This is the first reported case in the literature of an Emirati child with leukaemia developing severe mucositis and psychosis when taking levetiracetam.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta