• Users Online: 433
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
REVIEW FOR THE SHEIKH HAMDAN BIN RASHID AL MAKTOUM AWARD FOR MEDICAL SCIENCES
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 305-315

Repurposing failed pharmaceuticals as the first targeted medicines for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer


Department of Oncology; Department of Pharmacology, Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA

Correspondence Address:
V Craig Jordan
Department of Oncology, Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC
USA
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.7707/hmj.345

Rights and Permissions

The selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene (Evista®, Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, IN, USA) are both pioneering medicines that have improved the health and life expectancy of millions of women around the world. These are targeted therapies to treat or prevent breast cancer by blocking the tumour oestrogen receptor (ER) to prevent oestrogen-stimulated growth but, at the same time, modulate bone to express oestrogen-like effects to prevent fractures. Raloxifene was the first medicine to be approved for the prevention of both breast cancer and osteoporosis; however, both drugs were not initially destined to be developed at all. Tamoxifen was intended to be a contraceptive, and raloxifene was to be a breast cancer drug targeted to tumour ER, but both applications failed. In both cases, drug development was terminated. Nonetheless, the abandoned drugs were repurposed through careful laboratory models of human disease to be resurrected as ‘firsts’ in their class of targeted medicines. Tamoxifen became the ‘gold standard’ as the antihormone therapy for prevention and treatment of all stages of breast cancer, in women, ductal carcinoma in situ and male breast cancer. No other medicine has that distinction. Raloxifene was the first SERM to be approved for two completely different diseases, the treatment of osteoporosis and the prevention of breast cancer. These targeted therapies changed medicine.


[PDF]*
Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)
 

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed187    
    Printed8    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded21    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal